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Everything You Need to Know About Composting

Compost is what gardeners call the garden’s gold, while composting is a unique procedure that one can easily carry out to convert organic waste into a garden’s gold. It is a simple yet powerful age-old method that lets you reduce waste such as yard trimmings, kitchen scraps, and certain paper products to create healthier gardens and contribute to a more sustainable future. What might appear as a dark, crumbling matter of food waste is black gold, which can remarkably enhance soil fertility. This article will dig further deeper into the details of composting and provide you with a holistic outlook.

Why Should You Compost?

Composting offers a multitude of benefits, making it a worthwhile endeavor for any garden enthusiast or environmentally conscious individual. First and foremost, composting reduces the amount of organic waste sent to landfills, where it releases greenhouse gases. Instead, composting allows us to recycle these materials and return them to the earth, closing the nutrient cycle. In addition to waste reduction, compost has numerous positive effects on soil health and plant growth and improves overall fertility. The improved soil structure promotes better root development, enhances nutrient uptake, and fosters a thriving soil ecosystem. Compost also aids in moisture retention, reducing the need for frequent watering, and acts as a natural soil conditioner, making it suitable for a wide range of plants and gardening practices.

Getting Started: What You Need

To begin your composting journey, you’ll need a few essentials. A compost bin or pile is the primary requirement, providing an enclosed space for the organic matter to break down. You can choose multiple options that entail:

You are also supposed to consider factors such as available space, aesthetics, and ease of maintenance when selecting your composting system.

What Can You Compost?

Understanding what you can compost is vital to maintaining a healthy and productive pile. Suitable materials for composting include:

  • Kitchen scraps: You may compost vegetable and fruit peels, crushed eggshells, tea leaves, coffee grounds, and non-greasy food scraps. You must avoid meat, dairy, oily foods, and fatty products, as they can attract pests or cause odor issues.
  • Yard waste: You may compost plant trimmings, grass clippings, and small branches. However, avoid weeds with mature seeds, diseased plant material, and invasive plants that can regenerate from cuttings.
  • Paper products: Shredded newspaper, cardboard, paper towels, and napkins can all be added to the compost pile. However, glossy, or heavily inked paper should be avoided.
  • Natural fibers: Cotton and wool scraps and natural fibers such as jute or hemp twine can be composted.

The Composting Process

Composting is a biological process driven by a diverse community of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, insects, and earthworms. These organisms break down organic matter, converting it into compost. The process comprises the following phases:

Active Composting Phase

During the active composting phase, microorganisms rapidly break down the organic materials. It’s crucial to provide proper aeration by turning the compost pile regularly. Turning the pile allows oxygen to reach the microorganisms, promoting their activity and accelerating decomposition. Therefore, it is recommended to turn the pile weekly. 

Curing or Maturing Phase

After the active composting phase, the compost enters the curing or maturing phase. At this stage, the temperature gradually decreases, and the compost stabilizes. Letting the compost cure for several weeks to several months is recommended, allowing any remaining organic matter to decompose fully and the compost to mature. The resulting compost will be dark, crumbly, and earthy-smelling, indicating that it is ready to be used in the garden.

Troubleshooting and Tips

While composting is a relatively straightforward process, a few common challenges may arise. Here are some troubleshooting tips:

Foul Odors

Foul odors may indicate an imbalance in the compost pile, such as too much nitrogen or insufficient aeration. Thus, you may add more carbon-rich materials (browns) and turn the pile more often.

Excessive Pests

Pests can be attracted to compost piles that contain food scraps. Avoid adding meat, dairy, and greasy foods, as they can be particularly attractive to pests. Consider using a compost bin with a secure lid or covering food scraps with a layer of brown to deter pests.

Slow Decomposition

Check the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio if your compost pile is taking longer than expected to break down. Ensure a good mix of browns and greens to provide the necessary balance. Adjust the moisture levels by adding water if the pile is dry or incorporating dry materials if it’s too wet. Turning the pile more frequently can also help speed up decomposition.


To conclude, composting is a valuable practice that actively empowers individuals to contribute to waste reduction and sustainable gardening. It lets you divert organic materials from landfills and harness their potential to create nutrient-rich compost. Thus, we not only promote environmental stewardship but also enhance the health and productivity of our gardens. So, enjoy the process, embrace the magic of decomposition, and watch as your waste transforms into garden gold.